# – Topics

1 Introduction and Vectors

1.1 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time
1.2 Dimensional Analysis
1.3 Conversion of Units
1.4 Order-of-Magnitude Calculations
1.5 Significant Figures
1.6 Coordinate Systems
1.7 Vectors and Scalars
1.8 Some Properties of Vectors
1.9 Components of a Vector and Unit Vectors
1.10 Modeling, Alternative Representations, and Problem-Solving Strategy

2 Motion in One Dimension

2.1 Average Velocity
2.2 Instantaneous Velocity
2.3 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Velocity
2.4 Acceleration
2.5 Motion Diagrams
2.6 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Acceleration
2.7 Freely Falling Objects
2.8 Context Connection: Acceleration Required by Consumers

3 Motion in Two Dimensions

3.1 The Position, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors
3.2 Two-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration
3.3 Projectile Motion
3.4 Analysis Model: Particle in Uniform Circular Motion
3.6 Relative Velocity and Relative Acceleration
3.7 Context Connection: Lateral Acceleration of Automobiles

4 The Laws of Motion

4.1 The Concept of Force
4.2 Newton’s First Law
4.3 Mass
4.4 Newton’s Second Law
4.5 The Gravitational Force and Weight
4.6 Newton’s Third Law
4.7 Analysis Models Using Newton’s Second Law
4.8 Context Connection: Forces on Automobiles

5 More Applications of Newton’s Laws

5.1 Forces of Friction
5.2 Extending the Particle Uniform Circular Motion Model
5.3 Nonuniform Circular Motion
5.4 Motion in the Presence of Velocity-Dependent Resistive Forces
5.5 The Fundamental Forces of Nature
5.6 Context Connection: Drag Coefficients of Automobiles

6 Energy of a System

6.1 Systems and Environments
6.2 Work Done by a Constant Force
6.3 The Scalar Product of Two Vectors
6.4 Work Done by a Varying Force
6.5 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem
6.6 Potential Energy of a System
6.7 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces
6.8 Relationship Between Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
6.9 Potential Energy for Gravitational and Electric Forces
6.10 Energy Diagrams and Equilibrium of a System
6.11 Context Connection: Potential Energy in Fuels

7 Conservation of Energy

7.1 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System (Energy)
7.2 Analysis Model: Isolated System (Energy)
7.3 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System in Steady State (Energy)
7.4 Situations Involving Kinetic Friction
7.5 Changes in Mechanical Energy for Nonconservative Forces
7.6 Power
7.7 Context Connection: Horsepower Ratings of Automobiles

8 Momentum and Collisions

8.1 Linear Momentum
8.2 Analysis Model: Isolated System (Momentum)
8.3 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System (Momentum)
8.4 Collisions in One Dimension
8.5 Collisions in Two Dimensions
8.6 The Center of Mass
8.7 Motion of a System of Particles
8.8 Context Connection: Rocket Propulsion

9 Relativity

9.1 The Principle of Galilean Relativity
9.2 The Michelson-Morley Experiment
9.3 Einstein’s Principle of Relativity
9.4 Consequences of Special Relativity
9.5 The Lorentz Transformation Equations
9.6 Relativistic Momentum and the Relativistic Form of Newton’s Laws
9.7 Relativistic Energy
9.8 Mass and Energy
9.9 General Relativity
9.10 Context Connection: From Mars to the Stars

10 Rotational Motion

10.1 Angular Position, Speed, and Acceleration
10.2 Analysis Model: Rigid Object Under Constant Angular Acceleration
10.3 Relations Between Rotational and Translational Quantities
10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy
10.5 Torque and the Vector Product
10.6 Analysis Model: Rigid Object in Equilibrium
10.7 Analysis Model: Rigid Object Under a Net Torque
10.8 Energy Considerations in Rotational Motion
10.9 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System (Angular Momentum)
10.10 Analysis Model: Isolated System (Angular Momentum)
10.11 Precessional Motion of Gyroscopes
10.12 Rolling Motion of Rigid Objects
10.13 Context Connection: Turning the Spacecraft

11 Gravity, Planetary Orbits, and the Hydrogen Atom

11.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Revisited
11.2 Structural Models
11.3 Kepler’s Laws
11.4 Energy Considerations in Planetary and Satellite Motion
11.5 Atomic Spectra and the Bohr Theory of Hydrogen
11.6 Context Connection: Changing from a Circular to an Elliptical Orbit

12 Oscillatory Motion

12.1 Motion of an Object Attached to a Spring
12.2 Analysis Model: Particle in Simple Harmonic Motion
12.3  Energy of the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
12.4 The Simple Pendulum
12.5 The Physical Pendulum
12.6 Damped Oscillations
12.7 Forced Oscillations
12.8 Context Connection: Resonance in Structures

13 Mechanical Waves

13.1  Propagation of a Disturbance
13.2  Analysis Model: Traveling Wave
13.3  The Speed of Transverse Waves on Strings
13.4  Reflection and Transmission
13.5  Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal Waves on Strings
13.6  Sound Waves
13.7  The Doppler Effect
13.8  Context Connection: Seismic Waves

14 Superposition and Standing Waves

14.1 Analysis Model: Waves in Interference
14.2  Standing Waves
14.3  Analysis Model: Waves Under Boundary Conditions
14.4  Standing Waves in Air Columns
14.5  Beats: Interference in Time
14.6 Nonsinusoidal Wave Patterns
14.7 The Ear and Theories of Pitch Perception
14.8 Context Connection: Building on Antinodes

15 Fluid Mechanics

15.1  Pressure
15.2  Variation of Pressure with Depth
15.3  Pressure Measurements
15.4  Buoyant Forces and Archimedes’s Principle
15.5  Fluid Dynamics
15.6  Streamlines and the Continuity Equation for Fluids
15.7  Bernoulli’s Equation

16 Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases

16.1  Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
16.2  Thermometers and Temperature Scales
16.3  Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids
16.4  Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas
16.5  The Kinetic Theory of Gases
16.6  Distribution of Molecular Speed
16.7  Context Connection: The Atmospheric Lapse Rate

17 Energy in Thermal Processes: The First Law of Thermodynamics

17.1  Heat and Internal Energy
17.2  Specific Heat
17.3  Latent Heat
17.4 Work in Thermodynamic Processes
17.5  The First Law of Thermodynamics
17.6 Some Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics
17.7 Molar Specific Heats of Ideal Gases
17.8 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
17.9 Molar Specific Heats and the Equipartition of Energy
17.10 Energy Transfer Mechanisms in Thermal Processes
17.11  Context Connection: Energy Balance for the Earth

18 Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

18.1  Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
18.2  Reversible and Irreversible Processes
18.3  The Carnot Engine
18.4 Heat Pumps and Refrigerators
18.5  An Alternative Statement of the Second Law
18.6 Entropy
18.7 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
18.8 Entropy Changes in Irreversible Processes
18.9  Context Connection: The Atmosphere as a Heat Engine

19 Electric Forces and Electric Fields

19.1  Historical Overview
19.2  Properties of Electric Charges
19.3  Insulators and Conductors
19.4 Coulomb’s Law
19.5  Electric Fields
19.6 Electric Field Lines
19.7 Motion of Charged Particles in a Uniform Electric Field
19.8 Electric Flux
19.9  Gauss’s Law
19.10  Application of Gauss’s Law to Various Charge Distributions
19.11 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
19.12 Context Connection: The Atmospheric Electric Field

20 Electric Potential and Capacitance

20.1  Electric Potential and Potential Difference
20.2  Potential Difference in a Uniform Electric Field
20.3  Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Charges
20.4 Obtaining the Value of the Electric Field
from the Electric Potential
20.5  Electric Potential Due to Continuous Charge Distributions
20.6 Electric Potential Due to a Charged Conductor
20.7 Capacitance
20.8 Combinations of Capacitors
20.9  Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor
20.10  Capacitors with Dielectrics
20.11 Context Connection: The Atmosphere as a Capacitor

21 Current and Direct Current Circuits

21.1  Electric Current
21.2  Resistance and Ohm’s Law
21.3  Superconductors
21.4 A Model for Electrical Conduction
21.5  Energy and Power in Electric Circuits
21.6 Sources of emf
21.7 Resistors in Series and Parallel
21.8 Kirchhoff ’s Rules
21.9  RC Circuits
21.10  Context Connection: The Atmosphere as a Conductor

22 Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields

22.1  Historical Overview
22.2  The Magnetic Field
22.3  Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field
22.4 Applications Involving Charged Particles Moving in a Magnetic Field
22.5  Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
22.6 Torque on a Current Loop in a Uniform Magnetic Field
22.7 The Biot–Savart Law
22.8 The Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductors
22.9  Ampère’s Law
22.10  The Magnetic Field of a Solenoid
22.11 Magnetism in Matter
22.12 Context Connection: Remote Magnetic Navigation for Cardiac Catheter Ablation Procedures

23.2  Motional emf
23.3  Lenz’s Law
23.4 Induced emfs and Electric Fields
23.5  Inductance
23.6 RL Circuits
23.7 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
23.8 Context Connection: The Use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Depression

24 Electromagnetic Waves

24.1  Displacement Current and the Generalized Form of Ampère’s Law
24.2  Maxwell’s Equations and Hertz’s Discoveries
24.3  Electromagnetic Waves
24.4 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
24.6 The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Waves
24.7 Polarization of Light Waves
24.8 Context Connection: The Special Properties of Laser Light

25 Reflection and Refraction of Light

25.1  The Nature of Light
25.2  The Ray Model in Geometric Optics
25.3  Analysis Model: Wave Under Reflection
25.4 Analysis Model: Wave Under Refraction
25.5  Dispersion and Prisms
25.6 Huygens’s Principle
25.7 Total Internal Reflection
25.8 Context Connection: Optical Fibers

26 Image Formation by Mirrors and Lenses

26.1  Images Formed by Flat Mirrors
26.2  Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors
26.3  Images Formed by Refraction
26.4 Images Formed by Thin Lenses
26.5  The Eye
26.6 Context Connection: Some Medical Applications

27 Wave Optics

27.1  Conditions for Interference
27.2  Young’s Double-Slit Experiment
27.3  Analysis Model: Waves in Interference
27.4 Change of Phase Due to Reflection
27.5  Interference in Thin Films
27.6 Diffraction Patterns
27.7 Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Apertures
27.8 The Diffraction Grating
27.9 Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals
27.10 Context Connection: Holograph

28 Quantum Physics

28.1  Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Theory
28.2  The Photoelectric Effect
28.3  The Compton Effect
28.4 Photons and Electromagnetic Waves
28.5  The Wave Properties of Particles
28.6 A New Model: The Quantum Particle
28.7 The Double-Slit Experiment Revisited
28.8 The Uncertainty Principle
28.9 An Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
28.10 A Particle in a Box
28.11 Analysis Model: Quantum Particle Under Boundary Conditions
28.12 The Schrödinger Equation
28.13 Tunneling Through a Potential Energy Barrier
28.14 Context Connection: The Cosmic Temperature

29 Atomic Physics

29.1  Early Structural Models of the Atom
29.2  The Hydrogen Atom Revisited
29.3  The Wave Functions for Hydrogen
29.4 Physical Interpretation of the Quantum Numbers
29.5  The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table
29.6 More on Atomic Spectra: Visible and X-Ray
29.7 Context Connection: Atoms in Space

30 Nuclear Physics

30.1  Some Properties of Nuclei
30.2  Nuclear Binding Energy
30.5  Nuclear Reactions
30.6 Context Connection: The Engine of the Stars

31 Particle Physics

31.1  The Fundamental Forces in Nature
31.2  Positrons and Other Antiparticles
31.3  Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physics
31.4 Classification of Particles
31.5  Conservation Laws
31.6 Strange Particles and Strangeness