# Principles of Physics ePrep Course forUniversity Preparation

##### A retired NTU professor is also available for consultations.  He can be reached via email or WhatsApp messaging. Please note that this Principles of Physics university prep course is very different from the other physics university prep course also by NTU. Please read below for details for this university prep course on physics.

Audio: Intro to Principles of Physics ePrep Course

### Principles of Physics ePrep Course

##### I. Compulsory Chapters

1 Introduction and Vectors

1.1 Standards of Length, Mass, and Time
1.2 Dimensional Analysis
1.3 Conversion of Units
1.4 Order-of-Magnitude Calculations
1.5 Significant Figures
1.6 Coordinate Systems
1.7 Vectors and Scalars
1.8 Some Properties of Vectors
1.9 Components of a Vector and Unit Vectors
1.10 Modeling, Alternative Representations, and Problem-Solving Strategy

2 Motion in One Dimension

2.1 Average Velocity
2.2 Instantaneous Velocity
2.3 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Velocity
2.4 Acceleration
2.5 Motion Diagrams
2.6 Analysis Model: Particle Under Constant Acceleration
2.7 Freely Falling Objects
2.8 Context Connection: Acceleration Required by Consumers

3 Motion in Two Dimensions

3.1 The Position, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors
3.2 Two-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration
3.3 Projectile Motion
3.4 Analysis Model: Particle in Uniform Circular Motion
3.6 Relative Velocity and Relative Acceleration
3.7 Context Connection: Lateral Acceleration of Automobiles

4 The Laws of Motion

4.1 The Concept of Force
4.2 Newton’s First Law
4.3 Mass
4.4 Newton’s Second Law
4.5 The Gravitational Force and Weight
4.6 Newton’s Third Law
4.7 Analysis Models Using Newton’s Second Law
4.8 Context Connection: Forces on Automobiles

5 More Applications of Newton’s Laws

5.1 Forces of Friction
5.2 Extending the Particle Uniform Circular Motion Model
5.3 Nonuniform Circular Motion
5.4 Motion in the Presence of Velocity-Dependent Resistive Forces
5.5 The Fundamental Forces of Nature
5.6 Context Connection: Drag Coefficients of Automobiles

6 Energy of a System

6.1 Systems and Environments
6.2 Work Done by a Constant Force
6.3 The Scalar Product of Two Vectors
6.4 Work Done by a Varying Force
6.5 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem
6.6 Potential Energy of a System
6.7 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces
6.8 Relationship Between Conservative Forces and Potential Energy
6.9 Potential Energy for Gravitational and Electric Forces
6.10 Energy Diagrams and Equilibrium of a System
6.11 Context Connection: Potential Energy in Fuels

7 Conservation of Energy

7.1 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System (Energy)
7.2 Analysis Model: Isolated System (Energy)
7.3 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System in Steady State (Energy)
7.4 Situations Involving Kinetic Friction
7.5 Changes in Mechanical Energy for Nonconservative Forces
7.6 Power
7.7 Context Connection: Horsepower Ratings of Automobiles

8 Momentum and Collisions

8.1 Linear Momentum
8.2 Analysis Model: Isolated System (Momentum)
8.3 Analysis Model: Nonisolated System (Momentum)
8.4 Collisions in One Dimension
8.5 Collisions in Two Dimensions
8.6 The Center of Mass
8.7 Motion of a System of Particles
8.8 Context Connection: Rocket Propulsion

##### II. Optional Chapters (Learning Materials are Provided Too)
• Gravity, Planetary Orbits, and the Hydrogen Atom.
• Oscillatory Motion.
• Mechanical Waves.
• Superposition and Standing Waves.
• Fluid Mechanics.
• Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases.
• Energy in Thermal Processes: The First Law of Thermodynamics.
• Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of
• Thermodynamics.
• Electric Forces and Electric Fields.
• …. See Topic Details

### Principles of Physics ePrep Course

#### Samples of Course Materials

##### 2. Problem Solving (Forces)

Question: An adventurous archaeologist (m=85.0 kg) tries to cross a river by swinging from a vine.  The vine is 10.0 m long, and his speed at the bottom of the swing is 8.00 m/s. The archaeologist doesn’t know that the vine has a breaking strength of 1,000 N. Does he make it across the river without falling in?

##### 3. Objective Question (Conservation of Energy)

Question:

A ball of clay falls freely to the hard floor.  It does not bounce noticeably, and it very quickly comes to rest.  What, then, has happened to the energy the ball had while it was falling?

(a) It has been used up in producing the downward motion.

(b) It has been transformed back into potential energy.

(c) It has been transferred into the ball by heat.

(d) It is in the ball and floor (and wall) as the energy of invisible molecular motion.

(e) Most of it went into sound.

The energy is internal energy.  Energy is never “used up.” The ball finally has no elevation and no compression, so the ball-Earth system has no potential energy. There is no stove, so no energy is put in by heat. The amount of energy transferred away by sound is minuscule.

### Samples of Bonus Materials

1. Business Finance (Net Working Capital and Net Operating Working Capital)

##### 4. Worked Example on Engineering Economy (Cost Estimation Technique)

Question:

An electric power distributor charges residential customers \$0.10 per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The company advertises that “green power” is available in 150 kWh blocks for an additional \$4 per month. (Green power is generated from solar, wind power, and methane sources.)

a. If a certain customer uses an average of 400 kWh per month and commits to one monthly 150 kWh block of green power, what is her annual power bill?

b. What is the average cost per kWh with green power during the year?

c. Why does green power cost more than conventional power?

Standard electric bill = (400 kWhr)(12 months/year)(\$0.10/kWhr) = \$480 per year.

Green power bill = (12 months/year)(\$4/month) = \$48 per year. Total electric bill = \$528 per year.

(b) \$528 / 4,800 kWhr = \$0.11 per kWhr (a 10% increase due to green power usage)

(c) The technology used to capture energy from solar, wind power and methane is more expensive than traditional power generation methods (coal, natural gas, and so on).

##### 5. Web Exercise on Psychology (Theories of Motivation)

Question:

Annie has just finished watching a movie about cement mixing that she thought was long and boring. According to the arousal theory of motivation, Annie will most likely ________ next.

(a)   do something exciting

(c)   go to sleep

##### 9. Problem and Solution on Calculus (Volume of Solid)

Problem:

Use the method of cylindrical shells to find the volume of the solid obtained by rotating the region bounded by the curve

y2 – 6y + x = 0, x=0

Solution:

##### 10. Python Programming (Quick Sort)

Code:

from random import randint

def quicksort(array):
if len(array) < 2:
return array
low, same, high = [], [], []
pivot = array[randint(0, len(array) – 1)] #random `pivot` element

for item in array:
if item < pivot:
low.append(item)
elif item == pivot:
same.append(item)
elif item > pivot:
high.append(item)
print(“low = “, low, “same = “, same, “high = “, high)
return quicksort(low) + same + quicksort(high) #recursive call

oArray = [2, 8, 9, 4, 26, 82, 56, 43]
print(“Original array”, oArray)
nArray = quicksort(oArray)
print(“Sorted array”, nArray)

Output:
Original array [2, 8, 9, 4, 26, 82, 56, 43]
low =  [2] same =  [4] high =  [8, 9, 26, 82, 56, 43]
low =  [8, 9, 26, 43] same =  [56] high =  [82]
low =  [8, 9] same =  [26] high =  [43]
low =  [8] same =  [9] high =  []

Sorted array [2, 4, 8, 9, 26, 43, 56, 82]

#### 11. Economics (How a Lower Price Raises Consumer Surplus)

As price falls, consumer surplus increases for two reasons.

• Those already buying the product will receive additional consumer surplus because they are paying less for the product than before (area BCDE on graph (b)).
• Since the price is now lower, some new buyers will enter the market and receive consumer surplus on these additional units of output purchased (area CEF on graph (b)).

Question:

Solution:

### Who should take this University Preparation course on Physics?

• It is a must for all students doing science and engineering degrees, especially for those without A level Physics.
• Even for those not going to any university due to various reasons, this is an opportunity to prove that they are capable of completing a university-level course.
• Everyone is welcome and there is no pre-requisite.

### Response to this Physics Course

The take-up rate is not as good as it should be. This is due to another cheaper physics course offered by NTU PaCE.  But, please note the following features in this Principles of Physics ePrep course but not in the other cheaper physics ePrep course:

1. Comes with a Free Hard Copy Textbook for all registered e-Prep students together with
• Professionally Produced Animations/Videos/Illustrations by Book Authors and Publishers
• Answers /Solutions to all Questions/Problems in Textbook and Additional Question/Problems not in Textbook
• Other Useful eLearning Materials in Various Forms Provided by Book Publishers
2. All Learning Materials are from Authors and Book Publishers with a retired NTU Professor Acting as Tutor
3. Provide Comprehensive Learning Materials, in various forms, using Different Approaches, for Rigorous Studies
4. Contain Very Useful Bonus Materials on Various Other Subjects as well, in addition to physics
5. Exercises and Test Questions are Randomly Generated from Large Question Pools. Useful Feedbacks are Provided after Attempts.