Biotechnology NS ePrep Course
by Nanyang Technological University
– Learning Objectives
1 The Phenomena of Biotechnology
- Define biotechnology.
- Describe how biological technology differs from technology derived from physical science.
- Define genetic engineering.
- Explain why biotechnology is important to agriculture, health care, and the environment.
- Explain how biotechnology is used.
2 The Historical Development of Biotechnology
- List the important milestones in the development of biotechnology.
- Compare the development of agriculture with the development of civilization.
- Explain problems that were solved by the use of biotechnology.
- Analyze the importance of biotechnology in the development of food production and storage.
3 The Principles of Scientiﬁc Research
- Define research.
- Discuss why research is so important to our way of life.
- Define patents and intellectual property (IP) rights.
- Explain the steps in the scientific method.
- Distinguish between a hypothesis and a theory.
- Explain how an experimental design is organized.
- Discuss how experiments are conducted.
- Explain how data are analyzed.
- Explain how research results are reported.
4 Cells: The Foundation of Life
- Explain why cells are the foundation of life.
- List the different types of cells.
- Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
- Describe the different components of cells.
- Explain how cells reproduce by mitosis.
- Explain the process of meiosis.
- Define and describe stem cells.
5 The Principles of Genetic Transfer
- Explain the function of DNA.
- Discuss nucleotide sequencing.
- Explain the role of genes in the transfer of characteristics.
- Discuss the concept of gene interaction.
- Define the process of transcription.
- Define the process of translation.
- Discuss the mapping of the human genome.
6 Producing Genetically Modiﬁed Organisms
- Define genetically modified organism.
- Explain how bacteria are used to produce genetically engineered products.
- Discuss the steps involved in placing foreign DNA into an organism.
- Describe how a segment of DNA is selected and removed from a DNA strand.
- Explain how vectors are used to insert DNA into an organism.
- Describe the process of splicing DNA into plants.
- Describe the process of splicing DNA into animals.
- Explain how transgenic animals are used in genetic research.
7 Animal Cloning
- Discuss the benefits of cloning animals.
- Describe animals that have been successfully cloned.
- Explain the difference in cloning derived from embryos and cloning derived from differentiated cells.
- Explain the process of nuclear transfer.
- List the benefits of genetically altered clones.
- Discuss how the cloning of cattle has been made more efficient.
- Discuss why there can be differences in animal clones.
8 Plant Cloning
- Explain how plants naturally propagate by cloning.
- List the advantages of plant cloning.
- Describe the different plant parts associated with vegetative propagation or cloning.
- Describe the various methods of cloning plants.
- Explain the role of plant hormones in plant reproduction.
- Explain why cloning is important in the production of genetically altered plants.
9 Biotechnology in Plant Science
- Explain why insect control is so important in plant production.
- Describe how bacteria are used to create insect resistance in plants.
- List the advantages of plants that have been genetically modified to make them insect resistant.
- Explain how Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kills insects and remains harmless to humans.
- List crops that have been engineered to contain the Bt gene.
- Explain how Bt crops help alleviate mycotoxins.
- Explain the reason for making crops herbicide resistant.
- Describe the problems caused by weeds in crops.
- Describe how plants are genetically engineered to prevent viral infections.
- Describe how crops can be made tolerant of climatic conditions through genetic engineering.
- Describe how crops are being engineered for biofuels production and plant-made products.
- List the ways in which biotechnology, such as genetic engineering, is currently being used in producing plants.
10 Biotechnology in Animal Reproduction
- Explain how biotechnology is used in animal breeding.
- Describe the advantages of artificial insemination.
- Explain the process of artificial insemination.
- Explain how semen is processed for storage and shipment.
- Explain the process of estrus synchronization.
- Describe how eggs are produced in the ovary.
- Discuss the advantages of embryo transfer.
- Tell how embryo transfer is accomplished.
- Relate the advantages of producing only male or only female offspring.
- Explain how sperm are sorted according to sex chromosomes.
11 Biotechnology in Medicine
- Explain biomanufacturing.
- Explain the concept of pharming.
- Discuss the role of plants and animals in human health.
- Explain personalized medicine.
- Define gene therapy.
- Explain how plant pharming may reduce the cost of drug production.
- Explain how vaccines may be administered in food crops.
- Discuss the problems encountered in extracting hormones from animal organs.
- List the advantages of producing drugs through milk.
- Explain the difference between allotransplantation, autotransplantation, and xenotransplantation.
12 Biotechnology in the Food Industry
- Explain the importance of proper nutrition.
- Define macronutrients and micronutrients.
- Discuss the importance of vitamin A in the human diet.
- Explain why so many people in developing countries suffer from vitamin A deficiency.
- List common sources of vitamin A.
- Define “Golden Rice.”
- Discuss how genetic engineering is used to produce biofortified crops.
- Describe the problems people have had in preserving foods.
- Trace some of the important developments in preserving foods.
- Explain why various methods of food preserving work.
- Define enzymes.
- List some of the functions of enzymes in the human body.
- Explain how enzymes are used in the food processing industry.
- Describe how genetic engineering is used to produce enzymes through biomanufacturing.
13 Biotechnology in Ecology
- Discuss the role biotechnology plays in benefiting our environment.
- Explain how biotechnology is used to detect environmental pollutants.
- Distinguish between bioremediation and phytoremediation.
- Discuss high-yield farming and its benefits to the environment and world hunger.
- Explain how genetically modified crops positively affect the environment.
- Discuss conventional farming versus organic farming and the advantages and disadvantages of both in relation to the environment.
- Explain how oil spills can be combated with biotechnology.
- Discuss how biodiesel and biofuels benefit the environment.
- Discuss the benefits of growing plants that can survive harsh conditions.
14 Consumer Concerns about Biotechnology
- Discuss the arguments given against the use of bioengineered foods.
- Describe various concerns with the use of bioengineered livestock.
- Explain the concerns that consumers have about cloning, both animal and human.
- List the regulatory agencies and current safeguards used to monitor the use of bioengineered organisms.
15 Ethical Issues in Biotechnology
- Define ethics.
- Discuss the benefits and concerns of stem cell research.
- Explain patents on life.
- Discuss the controversy surrounding the patenting of life forms.
- Discuss the benefits and concerns of cloning.
- Describe the regulation process of biotechnology.
- Express how ethics may affect the future of biotechnology.
16 Careers in Biotechnology
- Analyze the career opportunities in biotechnology.
- List the broad categories of job classifications that deal with biotechnology.
- Discuss the amount of education needed for different jobs in biotechnology.
- Explain some of the characteristics associated with various jobs in biotechnology.